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The ray is a part of sun light which is received by us after passing million Kilometers. Human vision range is between 400 to 700 nanometers but UV wave length is not in human vision range and we can not see it and it often leads to destruction of photo-oxidation of plastics, because photons of UV wave length can be absorbed by different Polymers. Absorbing these wave length causes the destruction of plastics. This issue leads to turning color to yellow and making color turbidity and reducing the physical and mechanical features.
UV stabilizers are added with the aim of protecting different Polymers against this wave lenght and most of UV stabilizers act like this to absorb UV light and then they reflect it in a way which has less energy. Therefore, this mechanism decreases the destruction of plastic.
This additive increases the effective lifetime of greenhouse’s plastic and depending on needed lifetime, thickness and geographical area, certain type and amount of UV is used.
In greenhouse films to reach the high transparency, durability and strength of film, these additives are added, which improve the mentioned features, as well as, thermal effectiveness and high optical selectivity in films, as a result, the greenhouse products will grow better.
It needs to be mentioned that EVA can enhance the thermal resistance of plastic in the areas which are in touch with greenhouse’s metal structure.
The name fog is used when water vapor is made in the shape of big and small drops, on a transparent surface such as a plastic film. The reason we see water like drops on the surface of plastic films, is not only difference in moisture and temperature, but also the difference between water’s tension surface and Polymer’s tension surface.
Anti-Fog is added to formulation in the production process. Then it will migrate to the surface in other levels. This additive increases the plastic’s surface tension. On the other hand, this additive is dissolved in water and it decreases water’s surface tension, and it makes water and film’s surface tension close, which eventually causes making a continuous layer of water on the film and making it transparent.
Using Anti-Fog has other results besides improving light passing:
· More growth of plant
· Enhancing the efficiency of soil
· Decreasing falling drops
· Decreasing ruining the agricultural crops
· Decreasing pests
· More light’s efficiency
During the day, the greenhouse is warm because of sunlight and at night, when the weather is cold, the heat will get out of green house by shining the ‘slight, which is in range of Infrared.
To prevent this issue IR’s additive is used. This additive blocks the exit rout of IR and it prevents the changing temperature during day and night. Beside this issue, the amount of fuel consumption to supply the heat of greenhouse will be decreased.
Light Diffusion Additive
Adding this additive to formulation will lead to a uniform distribution of light in the greenhouse, which has theses benefits:
· Increasing the Photosynthesis efficiency because lower parts of plant will have access to light
· Preventing the growth of plant toward light and having a more uniform growth
This additive blocks the UV to 380 nanometers and it causes insects to lose their vision in the green house and it prevents the fungal contamination and viral infections as well as destroying products due to the presence of white fly, aphids, red spider and other pests. As a result, it leads to a noticeable decrease in the consumption of poisons.
It needs to be said that in some cases that insects are used for pollinating, this additive should not be used.
Electrostatic charging is often made because of cohesion between levels that might prevent opening the film in the packaging process. Additionally, decreasing electrostatic charging prevents from dust accumulation on the film.
In producing plastic films, layer insecurity and ease of opening the film on the roll is very important, plastic layers tend to stick to each other. Adding this additive prevents from this matter and it promotes these below points:
· The ease of opening on the roll
· Decreasing cohesion between layers